Denim is so far the most used fabric to make jeans trousers. Formerly made with a linen warp and a cotton weft, now completely in cotton. Its characteristics are strength and resistance combined with a certain adaptability.
Before the 1970s, denim was mainly produced in the United States. Since this denim production was diversified in various parts of the world, many countries have become big producers of this type of fabric. Today the main producing countries are China, Brazil, Turkey and Bangladesh.



The term "denim" takes its name from the city of Nimes in France, that is "de Nîmes" canvas. Already in the fifteenth century the French city of Nîmes was in competition with the Italian Chieri, in Piedmont, for the production of a very robust fabric in a blue color. When cotton became an inexpensive material, it was widely available for making work clothes. In the English language the production of Nimes was named "denim", while the Italian one, which was exported through the port of Genoa (where this type of canvas was used for port expeditions), had the name "blue-jeans" from the term bleu de Gênes, or blue of Genoa.



To allows the warping process to be best achieved, winding machines produce big cylindrical packages, usually 300mm in diameter and over, with great density. The peculiar robustness and strength of denim is is given by the thickness of the yarn.
The demand for yarns with elastomeric core is expanding, and plays an important role because of fashion versatility and flexibility. Stretch garments are playing an important role inside this scenario, denim jeans and leggings are highly requested, especially for womenswear. Keeping up this trend of stretch denim, many yarn & fabric manufacturers are offering duo core yarns with improved recovery and strength, while retaining the comfort of cotton next to the skin. Dual core spun yarns are consisting of three components: a core filament - mainly Lycra®, a polyester multifilament as T-400® and a staple fiber- mainly cotton. This special yarn offers improved recovery and strength compared to traditional core spun technology. Savio winding machine can easily process special and challenging yarns. Savio winding unit is equipped with splicing and tension control devices for ensuring perfect joints and perfect package shape.  A common problem faced by the stretch fabric manufacturers is the breakage of the yarns during downstream process. The well-known Savio Twinsplicer still represents the solution to achieve the best performance of a “perfect joint” on Core Yarns, mainly “single core” with cotton, but also positive results have been achieved with Dual Core Yarns. In this field, Savio can also offer the new splicing technology combining air and water, Moistair®, which represents the most flexible solution of any kind of yarn.  



An alternative for processing denim yarn is Open End spinning. The yarn produced by the spinning machine has different characteristics compared to traditional yarns: the formation is of a regular yarn but with a characteristic appearance and higher hairiness.


Denim image